Linked genes can be described as genes that are on the same chromosomes and do not assort independently and hence are inherited together.
Although in prophase 1 of meiosis some alleles are swapped between paternal and maternal chromatids, sometimes if particular genes are located close together rather than being exchanged between chromatids they remain on the same chromatid and are inherited together.
When genes are linked we use the following notation to denote this. This means that the two alleles on the top of the fraction are inherited together and the two alleles on the bottom of the fraction are inherited together.
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