Gene cloning

Gene cloning is the process of making multiple identical copies of a specific gene or segment of DNA.


  1. DNA is extracted from a cell or made using reverse transcriptase.
  2. The DNA is cut with restriction enzymes that leaves the DNA fragments with sticky ends.
  3. Plasmids are isolated and cut with the same restriction enzyme leaving sticky ends.
  4. The gene fragments and cut plasmids are mixed together and DNA ligase is added to incorporate the plasmids into the foreign DNA.
  5. Bacterial cells are treated to make their cell walls permeable to the plasmids to take them up that bacteria is said to be the transformed bacteria.
  6. The bacteria are able to reproduce using binary fission and multiply to produce many copies of the gene.
  7. The gene is then extracted from the plasmid.

This process is used to get copies of the gene needed to make for example growth hormone or insulin.

See also