The Maintenance Phase of the Employment Cycle

The Maintenance Phase

The Maintenance Phase involves the process of ensuring that an employee is familiar with and able to adequately complete their job.


Induction is a process of acquainting new employees with the organisation – its history, structures, objective, culture, policies, and practices – and the jobs they will perform. Induction can also be referred to as onboarding and orientation.

Activities involved in Induction

Activities included in Induction:

  • Learning computer programs
  • Reading manuals
  • Watching films about the organisation

Topics within Induction

Topics covered in Induction:

  • Organisation’s history and its culture
  • General conditions and Benefits
  • Training and Safety
  • Career paths

Benefits of Induction

The benefits of an Induction Program is that:

  • It can reduce stress and anxiety that may be associated with starting with a new job.
  • It can help to build a new employee’s confidence on the job by welcoming the employee and establishing good working relations with coworkers and supervisors.
  • It can improves motivation
  • It may lead for higher productivity

Training and Development


Employee Training generally refers to the process of teaching staff how to do their job more effectively and efficiently by boosting their knowledge and skills. The aim is to seek long-term change in employee’s skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in order to improve work performance in the organisation.

Benefits of Training

The benefits for employees include:

  • The opportunity for promotion and self-improvement
  • Improved job satisfaction through better job performance
  • A challenge – the choice to learn new things
  • Adaptability – greater ability to adapt to and cope with changes.

The benefits for the organisation include:

  • Higher productivity through better job performance and more efficient use of human resources
  • Goals and objectives more effectively met
  • Reduced costs due to less labour turnover, absenteeism, fewer errors and accidents
  • A more capable, “mobile” workforce


Development refers to the activities that prepare staff to take on greater responsibility in the future. Effective development ensures staff are retained, and motivation, and commitment are enhanced through promotion opportunities for the employer in the long term.

Programs aimed specifically at developing effective managers may focus on the use of:

  • Job rotation so that employee experiences different aspects of the organisation
  • Mentoring or coaching
  • Formal business training

Recognition and Reward

Recognition and Reward Programs aim to both acknowledge the work an employee has done and provide some sort of benefit, in return for a job well done.

Recognition refers to acknowledging the fact that an employee has performed well.

Rewards that can be provided to employees can be Intrinsic meaning they come from the task or job itself, such as recognition, feedback or a sense of achievement or are Extrinsic meaning outside the job itself. They may be monetary or non-monetary.

The reward system should aim to motivate staff and be equitable, clearly communicated, defensible, consistent, relevant, cost-effective and integrated with corporate strategy.

The Weaknesses of Reward and Recognition Program could include:

  • Some staff members not being recognized while others are
  • Encouraging competition between staff not cooperation
  • In some jobs it is difficult to measure productivity or job performance
  • If not perceived as fair it may result in staff turnover

Performance Management

Performance Management focuses on improving both the organisational and individual performance through relating organisational performance objectives to individual employee performance objectives. It is about setting objectives that help the organisation achieve its overall objectives.

Effective performance management looks at whether jobs are well designed and employees with the right skills are hired to undertake work.

Training and reward and recognition programs increase the likelihood of effective performance management.

Performance Appraisal

Involves 5 main objectives:

  1. Provide feedback from management to employees regarding work performance.
  2. Act as a measurement against which promotion and pay rises can be determined.
  3. Help the organisation monitor its employee selection
  4. Identify employees’ training and development needs
  5. Identify new objectives and out a plan in place to improve future performance.

Common Methods of Appraisal

  • Management by Objectives – employer and employee discuss and agree on the objectives to be evaluated.
  • Essay method – manager keeps a journal on each employee being appraised. Notes restricted to specific areas of job performance such as customer service, sales, cash register use and personal presentation.
  • Critical Incident Method – similar to essay method however managers only record exceptionally good or bad work performance.
  • Comparison Method – each employee is ranked according to a list of predetermined performance characteristics. This can be used to assess, knowledge, accuracy, and interpersonal skills.

See Also