In this section we look at another type of analytical technique; Spectroscopy. Spectroscopy involves the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. There are different kinds of radiation that include visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared, etc., and the type of radiation used determines the type of spectroscopy used as well as what kind of sample can be examined through the technique.
Note, features of instrumentation and operation are not part of the VCE study design but are still important to understand the basic principles of each spectroscopic technique.
Shells, also known as energy levels, are regions surrounding the nucleus of an atom which electrons inhibit. Electrons that are within shells that are closer to the nucleus experience stronger attraction to the nucleus compared to electrons in further away shells and are thus in lower energy levels. Electrons jump to different shells once excited by radiation and as the electron ‘relaxes’ back down, the electron emits the energy that has been absorbed in the form of light. The emitted energy can be used to work out the difference in energy between shells. The only types of radiation involved in spectroscopy that is capable of electron transitions is UV and visible light radiation. Infrared and radio waves do not have energy capable of promoting electrons to higher energy levels.
To interpret the results from AAS, a calibration graph needs to be made. Standard solutions (solutions of known concentration) are tested for their level absorbance and the results are plotted on the calibration curve where absorbance is on the y-axis whereas concentration is plotted on the x-axis. A line of best fit is drawn between all the data points and is used to work out the concentration of the sample from its detected absorbance level.
Generally, 4 standard solutions of different volumes are used and plotted on the graph however a minimum of at least 2 standard solutions are required as long as the result of the original sample is in between the two standards.
Cathode Lamps emits light of wavelength required to excite electrons.
The flame is used to vaporize the sample to create an atomic vapour. This step is essential for turning solid samples into gaseous molecules.
Monochromators is also used to select the wavelength of light absorbed by the sample to be exposed to the detector and recorder which measures the absorbance of the sample.
AAS is a more sensitive form of spectroscopy when compared to a simple flame test procedure and is capable of detecting over 70 elements.
Utilises light from the electromagnetic spectrum that has sufficient energy to be capable of promoting electrons to higher energy states. It is capable of detecting a wider range of elements compared to AAS as it uses not only visible light but also UV.
The monochromators is an important instrument in this procedure. It is responsible for selecting the wavelength of light that is most strongly absorbed by the sample in solution. For example, if the sample solution was CuSO4, it will exhibit a blue colour. The blue colour that we see in our eyes is due to CuSO4 absorbing all other wavelengths of light other than blue which is reflected off CuSO4; hence the blue appearance. The complementary colour, colour which is on the opposite end of the colour wheel, to blue is yellow-orange and is thus the colour/wavelength of light that CuSO4 can most strongly absorb; hence it is also the colour that is selected for by the monochromators. The light detector and recorder and then responsible for detecting the absorbance of the sample which is then used by comparing the absorbance of other standard solutions to find the samples unknown concentration.
Infrared has longer wavelength and is lower in energy than visible and UV light. Hence, infrared does not have enough energy to promote electrons to higher energy states. Instead, absorption of infrared radiation causes molecules to move to higher vibrational energy levels.
Each covalent bond absorbs infrared radiation over a characteristic range of frequencies. Examples include a sharp peak found at around 1750cm-1 which is indicative of a carbonyl bond and a broad peak at around 3300cm-1 which is indicative of an alcohol (OH) group.
The main purpose of IR is to detect what type of functional groups are present within an unknown molecule.
NMR unlike the other forms of spectroscopy utilises radio waves that change and affect the spin of neutrons and protons. Atoms with an odd number of nucleons (protons + neutrons) have an overall spin. Therefore NRM can theoretically be used to study any nuclei with an odd number of nucleons however they need to be present in a reasonable abundance. Hence, the most common types of NMR used are proton NMR and 13C NMR.
NMR tells us three main points about an element:
A mass spectrometer measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. Samples in this procedure are introduced as gases. There are two main principles when it comes to mass spectroscopy:
Involves bombarding the molecule with an electron. This positively charged molecule is called the parent molecular ion. The mass-to-charge ratio of the parent molecular ion gives the molecules molar mass. Since it is unstable in this state as it is a radical with one unpaired electron, it fragments into smaller fragment ions and uncharged free radicals. Mass spectroscopy picks up the concentration of the fragment ions. The different fragments gives away information about the structure of the molecule.
Isotopes are defined as elements that share the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons and thus atomic mass. Examples involve carbon-12carbon-13 and chlorine35/chlorine37
Example of mass spec
The highest peak of the mass spectrum is referred to as the base peak and has a relative intensity of 100%.
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