Functional Groups


  • Derived from ammonia → one hydrogen group replaced with a hydrocarbon
  • Has higher melting point than alkenes because of the ability of hydrogen bonds being able to be formed between other adjacent amine molecules.
  • When naming amines have the suffix ending of –amine.



  • Replacing a hydrogen with a halogen (Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine)
  • When naming haloalkanes have the prefix of the halogen E.g. if chlorine is being used to replace a hydrogen on methane then it will be named: chloromethane (see picture)



  • Has a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) i.e. one of the hydrogens is replaced with OH
  • Are polar
  • Can form hydrogen bonds, and so will be soluble in water
  • Can be classified as primary, secondary or tertiary alkanol depending on the location of the OH group.
  • When named alkanols have the suffix ending of –ol.
  • Picture below shows ethanol




Carboxylic (alkanoic) acids:

  • Are weak acids ∴will react with bases
  • Have the –COOH group in place of a hydrogen atom
  • When naming, the ‘C’ in COOH is carbon number 1 (ALWAYS)
  • When named carboxylic acids have the suffix ending of – oic acid.
  • Picture below shows ethanoic acid


  • Arises from a reaction between a carboxylic acid and alcohol è ester linkage (COO)
  • These are compounds responsible for the sweet flavours and aromas in lollies for example
  • Know how an ester is formed!
  • Esters have the two-part name: the alcohol component has the suffix ‘yl’ instead of ‘anol’ and the carboxylic acid component has the suffix ‘ate’ instead of ‘oic acid’
  • The ester shown below is methyl propanoate.