- Derived from ammonia → one hydrogen group replaced with a hydrocarbon
- Has higher melting point than alkenes because of the ability of hydrogen bonds being able to be formed between other adjacent amine molecules.
- When naming amines have the suffix ending of –amine.
- Replacing a hydrogen with a halogen (Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine)
- When naming haloalkanes have the prefix of the halogen E.g. if chlorine is being used to replace a hydrogen on methane then it will be named: chloromethane (see picture)
- Has a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) i.e. one of the hydrogens is replaced with OH
- Are polar
- Can form hydrogen bonds, and so will be soluble in water
- Can be classified as primary, secondary or tertiary alkanol depending on the location of the OH group.
- When named alkanols have the suffix ending of –ol.
- Picture below shows ethanol
Carboxylic (alkanoic) acids:
- Are weak acids ∴will react with bases
- Have the –COOH group in place of a hydrogen atom
- When naming, the ‘C’ in COOH is carbon number 1 (ALWAYS)
- When named carboxylic acids have the suffix ending of – oic acid.
- Picture below shows ethanoic acid
- Arises from a reaction between a carboxylic acid and alcohol è ester linkage (COO)
- These are compounds responsible for the sweet flavours and aromas in lollies for example
- Know how an ester is formed!
- Esters have the two-part name: the alcohol component has the suffix ‘yl’ instead of ‘anol’ and the carboxylic acid component has the suffix ‘ate’ instead of ‘oic acid’
- The ester shown below is methyl propanoate.
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