Also referred to as right-wing historians

Richard Pipes

“They simply wiped out the eleven intervening years of constitutionalism.”

“The machine gun became for them the principle instrument of political persuasion… and they could use it with impunity.”

“… The ‘Red Terror’ was not a reluctant response to the actions of others but a prophylactic measure designed to nip in the bud any thoughts of resistance to the dictatorship.”

“The Bolsheviks ceased to be utopians when, once and for all it had become clear the ideal was unattainable, they persisted in the attempt by resorting to unrestrained violence.”


“The promise to create a new society without oppression, police rule and terror… was swallowed up by the imperatives of Bolshevik survival and never retrieved.”

“Threatened by danger, the Bolsheviks resorted to the most repugnant means of saving their state, mass terror against their own people.”

“Their promises rapidly changed into coercion, limitation, alteration, a different ‘reading’ or an outright denial.”

“The Cheka gunned its way through the population.”

“All his (Lenin’s) attitudes were now conditioned by one consideration: to cling to power at any cost.”

“The Bolsheviks were incapable of giving the people anything but chaos, civil war, hunger and terror. The fact is the Bolsheviks had achieved their goal:  the Party had power.”

“…despite the fact that millions of honest people, led by the ‘vanguard of the revolution,’ laboured for it, the utopia remained a fairy-tale.”


Revolution was the “replacement of one form of state-authoritarianism with another.”